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Kidney Int., 2004; 66(4): 1694-706, PMID: 15458468

Analysis of the functional muscle-bone unit of the forearm in pediatric renal transplant recipients

Jahr: 2004

Rüth EM, Weber LT, Schoenau E, Wunsch R, Seibel MJ, Feneberg R, Mehls O, Tönshoff B
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, and Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Children"s Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation in children and adolescents is associated with various skeletal complications. The incidence of spontaneous fractures appears to be increased, but the reasons for this are not entirely clear. Our objective was therefore to evaluate macroscopic bone architecture, mass, and strength by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), a method that is not influenced by size-related artifacts. In addition, we investigated the muscle-bone relationship in these patients because under physiologic conditions bone strength continually adapts to increasing mechanical loads, that is, muscle force. METHODS: In 55 patients (41 males) aged 15.8 +/- 4.1 years, we evaluated in a cross-sectional study 4.9 +/- 3.6 years after renal grafting bone mass, density, geometry, and strength of the radius, as well as forearm muscle size and strength, using pQCT at the proximal and distal radius, radiography of the second metacarpal shaft and hand dynamometry. Data were compared to a large cohort (N= 350) of healthy children. RESULTS: Muscle mass and force were adequate for body size in pediatric renal transplant recipients. However, the radial bone was characterized by an inadequately thin cortex in relation to muscular force, as shown by a reduced height-adjusted cortical thickness both at the proximal (-0.83 +/- 1.12 SDS) and distal radius (-0.52 +/- 1.69 SDS), the metacarpal shaft (-0.54 +/- 1.35 SDS), and by a reduced relative cortical area (-0.90 +/- 1.13 SDS), while the mineralization of trabecular bone was unaltered. As a consequence of cortical thinning, the Strength-Strain Index that reflects the combined strength of trabecular and cortical bone was reduced in these patients. CONCLUSION: While bone mineral density of the forearm is not decreased in pediatric renal transplant recipients, bone strength in relation to muscular force is reduced. This alteration may contribute to the increased propensity for fractures in these patients.

GID: 1140; Letzte Änderung: 26.02.2008