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Osteoporos Int., 2007; 18(5): 659-69, PMID: 17206399

High bone mineral density in pycnodysostotic patients with a novel mutation in the propeptide of cathepsin K

Jahr: 2007

Schilling AF, Mülhausen C, Lehmann W, Santer R, Schinke T, Rueger JM, Amling M
Department of Trauma, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pycnodysostosis is typically associated with short stature, multiple fractures without adequate trauma and high bone density on x-ray. The increased bone density is due to a genetic defect of cathepsin K, leading to dysfunctional osteoclastic bone resorption and bone remodeling. We wanted to know how this defect influences the trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density of long bones as measured quantitatively by pQCT. METHODS: Three siblings of a consanguineous family were admitted to our hospital because of multiple fractures. Pycnodysostosis was diagnosed based on the clinical presentation with the characteristic dense appearance of their bones on x-ray. The distal and proximal radius of the patients and of control subjects was scanned using a Stratec XCT-2000 pQCT scanner and data were processed using the software provided by the manufacturer. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of all three patients and their parents. The coding exons of the cathepsin K gene (CTSK) were amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: The patients displayed the typical features of pycnodysostosis: Short stature, delay of closure of the fontanelles, hypoplasia of the maxilla, spondylolysis of the lumbar spine, stubby hands and feet and a history of multiple fractures. Volumetric bone density was much higher in pycnodysostotic bone than in the control bones 686 +/- 28 mg/cm(3) in patients vs. 290 +/- 6 mg/cm(3) in controls; p = 0.001), especially in the trabecular compartment (733 +/- 26 mg/cm(3) in patients vs. 195 +/- 8 mg/cm(3) in controls; p < 0.001), but also in the cortical bone (1108 +/- 22 in patients vs. 1020 +/- 17 in controls; p < 0.01). In contrast to this finding, the patients displayed an elevation of alkaline phosphatase in the serum and free deoxypyridinoline-crosslinks (DPD) in the urine, suggesting osteomalacia. Sequencing of the cathepsin K gene revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation in all three patients predicting the amino acid exchange from arginine to tryptophan at position 46 (R46W). CONCLUSION: We present here for the first time quantitative data on the mineral density of bones of pycnodysostotic patients with a novel mutation in the propeptide of cathepsin K. The elevated bone mineral density in the cortex and the changes in the serum markers suggest an effect of cathepsin K not only on bone volume, but also on bone mineralization. This might in part explain the increased susceptibility to fractures of patients with pycnodysostosis.

GID: 1211; Letzte Änderung: 05.03.2008