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Bone., 2008; 42(4): 660-8, PMID: 18291744

High impact exercise is more beneficial than dietary calcium for building bone strength in the growing rat skeleton

Jahr: 2008

Welch JM, Turner CH, Devareddy L, Arjmandi BH, Weaver CM
Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. jo.welch@dal.ca

Abstract

The benefits of impact exercise and dietary calcium on bone development are controversial. We used inbred rats under highly controlled conditions to test the independent and combined effects of impact exercise and physiological levels of calcium intakes on the growing skeleton. Forty growing F-344 female rats were fed diets containing either 100% (Ca+; 0.5% Ca) or 40% (Ca(-); 0.2% Ca) of their calcium requirements. Half of each dietary group was subjected to either 10 impacts per day from 45 cm freefall drops (Impact+), or no impact (Impact(-)). All rats received a free choice of physical activity period daily. After 8 weeks, the mechanical strength, volumetric density, geometry, and microarchitecture of their ulnae were measured. Body weight and bone length did not differ among groups. On both diets, freefall impact resulted in greater bone strength, cross-sectional moments of inertia, and endosteal and periosteal circumferences in the shaft. Only Ca+ resulted in greater shaft volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) but that did not affect shaft breaking strength. In the bone ends, both Impact+ and Ca+ positively affected density and structure of both cortical and trabecular bone but the effects of Impact+ were more pervasive. In the proximal end, Impact+ resulted in greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the trabecular bone due to greater trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness was greater due to a smaller endosteal circumference. Impact+ exerted a compensatory effect on vBMD and BV/TV in Ca(-) rats at the proximal site. In Impact(-) rats only, Ca+ resulted in greater total and cortical vBMD and BV/TV in the proximal ulna. Impact+ and Ca+ exerted additive effects on cortical bone area (BA) in the proximal ulna and on total BA, periosteal circumference, and trabecular vBMD in the distal ulna. In conclusion, impact exercise was more beneficial than adequate dietary calcium to growing bones, although sufficient dietary calcium was beneficial in rats not subjected to impact exercise.

GID: 1397; Letzte Änderung: 22.07.2008