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Calcif Tissue Int doi: 10.1007/s00223-022-00971-3, 2022; PMID: 35316361

Forearm Fractures in Overweight-Obese Children and Adolescents: A Matter of Bone Density, Bone Geometry or Body Composition?

Year: 2022

Franceschi R, Radetti G, Soffiati M, Maines E
Pediatric Department, S. Chiara General Hospital, Largo Medaglie d"Oro, 9, 38122, Trento, Italy.


Forearm fractures in children and adolescents are associated with increased body mass index (BMI). This bone site is non-weight-bearing and therefore is appropriate to explore the effect of BMI on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry, avoiding the confounding effect of increased weight-associated mechanical loading. The aim of this review was to summarize available evidence on bone indices and body composition assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the forearm level in overweight (Ow) or obese (Ob) subjects. We conducted a review of the literature according to the PICOS model. A total of 46 studies were identified following the literature search. A final number of 12 studies were included in this review. pQCT studies evidenced that Ow and Ob children typically have normal or increased volumetric BMD (vBMD), total bone area and cortical area, with normal or reduced cortical thickness at the forearm. Outcomes from DXA evaluations are less conclusive. In almost all the studies fat mass and lean mass area at the forearm are increased. A higher fat-to-lean mass ratio has been observed in few studies. Bone strength was reported as normal or increased compared to normal weight peers. In Ow or Ob children-adolescents, vBMD, bone size and bone strength are not reduced compared to normal weight peers. The local higher fat-to-lean mass ratio may give a mismatch between bone strength and the load experienced by the distal forearm during a fall, resulting in increased risk of forearm fractures.

GID: 5674; Last update: 04.04.2022