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J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2022; 35(12): 1464-1473, PMID: 36284507

Triple burden of malnutrition and role of anaemia in the development of complications associated with type 1 diabetes in Indian children and youth.

Year: 2022

Antani M, Pargaonkar Y, Oza C, Mondkar SA, Khadilkar V, Gondhalekar K, Khadilkar A
Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Pune, India.


OBJECTIVES: The double burden of malnutrition accompanied by micronutrient deficiency is referred to as the triple burden of malnutrition (TBM). Very few studies have highlighted the TBM in children with type-1 diabetes. We conducted this study with the objective of estimating the TBM in Indian children and youth with type-1 diabetes (T1D) and to study role of anaemia in the development of complications associated with T1D. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 394 subjects with T1D. Demographic data, anthropometry, blood pressure, biochemical measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography were performed using standard protocols. Estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: We report a 16, 5.8, and 16.2% prevalence of anaemia, underweight and overweight/obese suggesting TBM with microcytic hypochromic anaemia as the most common morphological form. Haemoglobin concentrations showed positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The presence of anaemia was a significant predictor of eGDR and macrovascular complications in T1D which could not be attributed to glycemic control. Bone health of anaemic T1D subjects was poor than subjects without anaemia on DXA scan after adjusting for confounders. No systematic pattern between Hb concentrations and eGFR or ACR was found. CONCLUSIONS: TBM in Indian children and youth with T1D is a significant health problem and anaemia is an important predictor in the development of macrovascular complications and poor bone health associated with T1D. However, its role in development of microvascular complications remains to be explored.

GID: 5825; Last update: 02.11.2022