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J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 2022; 13(3): 1927-1937, PMID: 35429146

Muscle density is an independent risk factor of second hip fracture: a prospective cohort study.

Year: 2022

Wang L, Yin L, Yang M, Ge Y, Liu Y, Su Y, Guo Z, Yan D, Xu Z, Huang P, Geng J, Liu X, Wang G, Blake GM, Cao W, He B, Lyu L, Cheng X, Wu X, Jiang L, Vlug A, Engelke K
Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.


BACKGROUND: Patients with a first hip fracture are at high risk of fracturing their other hip. Despite this, preventive therapy is often not given. Because little is known about specific risk factors of a second hip fracture, we investigated the association with areal bone mineral density (aBMD), muscle size, and density. We also investigated whether muscle parameters predict the risk of a contralateral fracture independently of aBMD. METHODS: Three groups were included, one without hip fracture (a subcohort of the China Action on Spine and Hip Status study), one with a first, and one with a second hip fracture. Subjects with fractures were recruited from the longitudinal Chinese Second Hip Fracture Evaluation (CSHFE). Computed tomography scans of CSHFE patients, which were obtained immediately following their first fracture, were used to measure cross-sectional area and density of the gluteus maximus (G.MaxM) and gluteus medius and minimus (G.Med/MinM) muscles. Computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure aBMD of the contralateral femur. Median follow-up time to second fracture was 4.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HR) of second hip fracture risk in subjects with a first hip fracture. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to compare odds ratios (OR) for the risk of a first and second hip fracture. RESULTS: Three hundred and one participants (68.4 +/- 6.1 years, 64% female) without and 302 participants (74.6 +/- 9.9 years, 71% female) with a first hip fracture were included in the analysis. Among the latter, 45 (79.2 +/- 7.1 years) sustained a second hip fracture. ORs for first hip fracture were significant for aBMD and muscle size and density. ORs for a second fracture were smaller by a factor of 3 to 4 and no longer significant for femoral neck (FN) aBMD. HRs for predicting second hip fracture confirmed the results. G.Med/MinM density (HR, 1.68; CI, 1.20-2.35) and intertrochanter aBMD (HR, 1.62; CI, 1.13-2.31) were the most significant. FN aBMD was not significant. G.Med/MinM density remained significant for predicting second hip fracture after adjustment for FN (HR, 1.66; Cl, 1.18-2.30) or total hip aBMD (HR, 1.50; 95% Cl, 1.04-2.15). CONCLUSIONS: Density of the G.Med/MinM muscle is an aBMD independent predictor of the risk of second hip fracture. Intertrochanteric aBMD is a better predictor of second hip fracture than FN and total hip aBMD. These results may trigger a paradigm shift in the assessment of second hip fracture risk and prevention strategies.

GID: 5835; Last update: 14.11.2022
More information: Original Article