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Analysis results of Leonardo Mechanography in detail

The Leonardo Mechanography software supports the following acquired or calculated graphs and analysis results:  


The following plots are available in Leonardo Mechanography:

  • Force: Total, left, right, L/R difference, weight.
  • Force development: Total, left, right.
  • Power: Total, left, right, L/R difference, relative power.
  • Acceleration: Acceleration acting on the centre of mass.
  • Velocity: Velocity of the centre of mass in z-direction (up & down).
  • Energy: Kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass.
  • Height: Variation of the height of the center of mass in relation to the starting point.
  • Stiffness: Whole body stiffness, stiffness left/right.
  • CoF (CoP)*: Variation over time of Centre of Force (CoF, also known as CoP) in x/y axis, l/r, f/b, 3D visualization.

Analysis results

Depending on the selected test type Leonardo Mechanography  calculates the following analysis results:

  • Maximum force: Total, left, right, difference in %, relative to body weight, maximum acceleration as multiples of gravity (g).
  • Average force: Average force between t1 and t3, t1 and t2, t2 and t3.
  • Left/right difference: For symmetrical movements: differences of maximum forces and the impulse between the two legs. For single legged hopping: difference between the voluntary peak force per leg.
  • Impulss: Impulss between t1 and t3, t1 and t2, t2 and t3.
  • Anaerobe peak power: Total, left, right, difference in %, relative to body weight
  • Performance: Esslinger Fitness Index (E.F.I., in relation to mass, age and gender matched reference data), E.F.I. z-score
  • Efficiency of movement: Relation between peak force and peak power of specific movement (normalized to mass, age and gender).
  • General data: gender, age, jumping height (calculated from potential as well as from kinetic energy, difference between both), body height (manual input), BMI (if body height has been added to data base entry). 
  • In counter movement and lift off phase: Maximum velocity, velocity at h=0, energy storage relative to body mass, max. counter movement distance.
  • Time / Phases: Counter movement phase, energy storage phase, stabilization phase (time until subject after the test stands still again).
  • Repeated / cyclic movements: Average jumping height, average rate of Force development (RFD), number of repetitions, average duration and standard deviation of repetitions, average value and standard deviation of flight phase and ground contact phase.
  • CoF (CoP)*: Area of 90% standard ellipse (Sway Index), path length, standard deviation from average position in A/P and L/M direction as well as independent from direction, velocity histogram.
  • Frequency analysis: FFT analysis of force and position variation.
  • Duration: Total duration of test, time per iteration, t1 to t2, t2 to t3, flight time, ground contact time, rise time (for repeated movements including standard deviation).

The following basic time points are automatically detected:

  • t0: Start of movement
  • t1: Maximum negative velocity of CoG
  • t2: Velocity=0 (lowest point of counter movement)
  • t3: Maximum positive velocity of CoG (close to take-off)
  • toff: Start of flight phase
  • ton: End of flight phase
  • tF: Maximum force during take-off
  • tP: Maximum power during take-off
  • tsettle: End of movement when subject is standing still again

*) Only in combination with Leonardo GRFP 6003, and GRFP LT 6005 (8 or 6 channel, LEO-DAQ interface) 

Additional data base fields

In addition the following data is recoded for each measurement:

  • Measurement attribute: Measurement ok, use for trend analysis or incorrect.
  • Man/Auto: Automatic analysis or manually altered analysis.
  • Measurement ID / Patient ID: Unique ID for each measurement and each patient data set.
  • Test Details: optional additional specifications of a test (e.g. L/R for multiple one legged hopping).
  • Test Comment: optional comment for each measurement.
  • Test Number: Consecutive number of individual test dependant on patient and measurement type.
  • Test Date/Time: date and time of measurement.
  • Operator ID: ID or operator that took the measurement.
  • Optionen: Analysis options (manual mode only).
  • Errors: Error codes of automatic analysis.
  • Data File Name: File name of the raw data file.
  • Version No: Version of the analysis algorithm of current data base entry.
  • HW ID: Unique ID of the used Leonardo Mechanograph device used for the measurement.
  • HW Type: Hardware type of Leonardo Mechanograph used for this measurement.
  • Scan Rate: Sampling rate used for this measurement (number of data points per second for each channel).
  • NoOfChannels: Number of acquired channels.
  • RefD: Name of reference data set in case the built in reference datasets should not be used.
  • last Modification: User ID, date & time of the last modification of this data set.
  • Reserve 1..10: 10 user defined text fields.
  • ResNum1..10: 10 used defined data fields (numbers).