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Kidney Int Rep, 2022; 8(2): 265-273, PMID: 36815116

Bone Mineral Density and Vascular Calcification in Children and Young Adults With CKD 4 to 5 or on Dialysis.

Year: 2022

Lalayiannis AD, Crabtree NJ, Ferro CJ, Wheeler DC, Duncan ND, Smith C, Popoola J, Varvara A, Mitsioni A, Kaur A, Sinha MD, Biassoni L, McGuirk SP, Mortensen KH, Milford DV, Long J, Leonard MD, Fewtrell M, Shroff R
Pediatric Nephrology, Birmingham Women"s and Children"s Hospitals, National Health Service Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK; University College London Great Ormond Street Hospital Institute of Child Health, London, UK.


INTRODUCTION: Older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can have low bone mineral density (BMD) with concurrent vascular calcification. Mineral accrual by the growing skeleton may protect young people with CKD from extraosseous calcification. Our hypothesis was that children and young adults with increasing BMD do not develop vascular calcification. METHODS: This was a multicenter longitudinal study in children and young people (5-30 years) with CKD stages 4 to 5 or on dialysis. BMD was assessed by tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The following cardiovascular imaging tests were undertaken: cardiac computed tomography for coronary artery calcification (CAC), ultrasound for carotid intima media thickness z-score (cIMTz), pulse wave velocity z-score (PWVz), and carotid distensibility for arterial stiffness. All measures are presented as age-adjusted and sex-adjusted z-scores. RESULTS: One hundred participants (median age 13.82 years) were assessed at baseline and 57 followed up after a median of 1.45 years. Trabecular BMD z-score (TrabBMDz) decreased (P = 0.01), and there was a nonsignificant decrease in cortical BMD z-score (CortBMDz) (P = 0.09). Median cIMTz and PWVz showed nonsignificant increase (P = 0.23 and P = 0.19, respectively). The annualized increase in TrabBMDz (DeltaTrabBMDz) was an independent predictor of cIMTz increase (R (2) = 0.48, beta = 0.40, P = 0.03). Young people who demonstrated statural growth (n = 33) had lower DeltaTrabBMDz and also attenuated vascular changes compared with those with static growth (n = 24). CONCLUSION: This hypothesis-generating study suggests that children and young adults with CKD or on dialysis may develop vascular calcification even as their BMD increases. A presumed buffering capacity of the growing skeleton may offer some protection against extraosseous calcification.

GID: 5921; Last update: 27.02.2023