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Test procedures & assessments supported by Leonardo Mechanography v4.4

The following assessments (automated summary of most relevant analysis parameters of certain test procedures) and test procedures are supported by Leonardo Mechanography:

1) These test procedures are only supported by the research version (RES) of Leoanrdo Mechanography.
2) Balance analysis is only availlable when using Leonardo Mechanograph GRFP 6003 or GRFP LT 6005 platforms (8 or 4 channel, LEO-DAQ Interface).
3) Additional components needed (e.g. belt or fixation).
4) Availlable only in combination with Leonardo Mechanograph Stair A/C.
5) Availlable only in combination with Grip Force option.
6) Availlable only in combination with Leonardo Mechanograph GW (Gangway)

Here you find a table showing which Leonardo System supports which test type.

BAss: Basic Asessment: Standard Assessment

Function: Automated compact summary of all s2LJ, m1LJ and CRT per patient and day.

Type: Fitness assessment.

Outcome parameters: Esslinger Fitness Index (E.F.I.), efficiency of movement, assymmetry of movement, maximum voluntray force of left and right leg seperately, CRT analysis.

BAss - Basic Assessment

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s2LJ: single 2 Leg Jump: Jump for maximum height (counter movement jump, vertical jump)

Type: Performance (power test).

Motion: Natural jump (counter movement jump, vertical jump) for maximum height. High reproducibility due to every day movement type.
Only fro verry specific applications (e.g. top athletes) additional normalisation of this movement (like locking of the arms by putting the hands on the hip) are needed.

Field of application: Basic performance (power) test.

Objectives/results: Quantification of individual anaerobe peak power output, reference data (age 3 to 99, matched for mass, gender, age), efficiency of movement (inter and intra muscular whole body coordination), L/R differences (is it an asymmetric movement, e.g. due to pain, relieving posture, injury of locomotor system including back muscles).

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, jumping height, counter movement, mass, L/R differences (force, power), Esslinger Fitness Index (E.F.I.), efficiency of movement.

s2LJ - single 2 Leg Jump

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CRT: Chair Rising Test

Type: Performance (power test) for deconditioned.

Motion: Subjects stands up until the knees are straight and immediately sits down again. This movement is repeated five times as fast as possible. 

Field of application: Performance test for weak deconditiones individuals, especially if they are not able to perform a s2LJ. Well established in the field of geriatrics (close relation to fall risk for the following two years if duration for 5 repetitions is longer then 10 seconds). Limitation for fit individuals: ceiling effect -> laws of physics limit the minimum time per test to one second; alternative test: s2LJ. 

Objectives/results: Evaluation of the individual performance (power) based on a fundamental every day movement: getting up from a chair. Analysis of movement deficiencies: L/R differences ((s it an asymmetric movement? e.g. due to pain, relieving posture, injury of locomotor system including back muscles).

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, total duration, time per iteration, geriatric reference data.

CRT - Chair Rising Test

m1LH: multiple 1 Leg Hop

Type: Measurement of maximum voluntray force per leg.

Motion: Repeated hopping on fore foot without heel contact (as high as possible with stiff knee). The test provokes the voluntary maximum muscular force of the lower extremities. The stiffness (whole body stiffness) as well as the energy storage capacity of the muscle-tendon complex can be assessed.

Field of application: General test of peak forces, energy storage capacity, flexibility, whole body stiffness.

Objectives/results: maximum voluntary force, maximum acceleration, stiffness, energy storage capacity. The maximum voluntary force is in close relation to bone strength (combination of mass, density, geometry - also see H. Frost. Mechanostat). Hence this test is an ideal addition to pQCT measurement results to extend the characterization of the functional muscle-bone unit. Quantification of movement deficiencies: injuries and pain cause inefficient movements, decreased energy storage capacity and limit the peak force.

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, stiffness.

m1LJ - multiple 1 Leg Hop

m2LH: multiple 2 Leg HOP

Type: Measurement of maximum voluntray force for botgh legs.

Motion: Repeated hopping on both fore feet without heel contact (as high as possible with stiff knee). The test provokes the voluntary maximum muscular force of the lower extremities. The stiffness (whole body stiffness) as well as the energy storage capacity of the muscle-tendon complex can be assessed.

Field of application: General test of peak forces, energy storage capacity, flexibility, whole body stiffness.

Objectives/results: maximum voluntary force, maximum acceleration, stiffness, energy storage capacity.

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, stiffness.

m2LH - multiple Two Leg Hop

DJ: Drop Jump

Type: test of ground contact time/speed.

Motion: Land on the platform from a defined height (chair) and try to bounce as fast as possible and as high as possible. This test is well established in sports there the most important parameter is the combination of contact time and air time (the shorter the contact time the better).

Field of application: The drop jump is mainly used in sports.

Objectives/results: Assessment of speed (see Bauersfeld & Voß): assessment of intra and inter muscular coordination.

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, ground contact time, L/R differences.

DJ - Drop Jump

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HRT: Heel Rise Test

Type: Performance (power) test (real power almost without energy storage).

Motion: The individual tries to jump straight knees and without any counter movement only suing the ankle joint. .

Field of application: Basic performance (power) analysis.

Objectives/results: Movement (jump) without energy storage, without counter movement, focused on the calf muscles.
Determination of maximum real power (without energy storage). Evaluation of the ability to produce concentric force and power.

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, counter movement, jumping height, L/R differences.

HRT - Heel Rise Test

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LT: Land Test

Type: Coordination, fitness test.

Motion: The individual lands from a defined height (e.g. from optional Leonardo step or stair) on the platform. The goal is to land as soft and quietly as possible. This demands to minimize peak ground reaction forces in order to achieve a constant energy absorption over a large distance (flexibility & coordination). Well trained individuals achieve peak forces smaller then 1.5 times body weight per leg (also see M. Runge).

Field of application: Basic performance test, coordination test, also suitable for geriatrics.

Objectives/results: Coordination of movement, ability for coordinated steady energy absorption, flexibility.

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, mass, falling height, L/R differences.

LT - Land Test

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RepT: Repetition Test: uniformity of repeated, cyclic movements

Type: Coordination test (uniformity of repeated, cyclic movements).

Motion Repeated movements. Example: The individual elastically moves the upper body with slightly bent legs up and down by a few centimetres and tries to repeat this for a minute as smooth as possible. Optimal results are uniform repetitions without variation.
-> harmonic (sinusoidal) oscillation of the centre of mass with 1 to 3 Hertz (derived from the ancient training of the Chinese emperor for staying young: "return of the Spring", also see M. Runge).

Field of application: Basic coordination, flexibility, geriatrics.

Objectives/results: Uniformity of repeated movements: coordination, stiffness and energy storage capacity..

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, mass, average duration and standard deviation.

RT - Repetition Test

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TRT: Trunk Rise Test

Type: Fitness test, performance (power) test, test for capability of back pain patients.

Motion: Version 1: upper body is lowered as fast as possible to about 90° then raised again as fast as possible.
Version 2 (e.g. for back pain patients): slowly bend upper body to about 90° forward the rise as fast as possible.
Version 3 (e.g. for back pain patients): Patient slowly bends knees with erect straight upper body until the fingertips touch the feet on the inside. Then rise as fast as possible (movement compared to lifting a heavy object).

Field of application: Version 1 and 2: basic performance (power) test of the muscles of the back (e.g. in geriatrics)
Version 3: Assessment of daily ability of back pain patients.

Objectives/results: Performance (peak power) of back muscles, Ability for daily movements like lifting a heavy object, back pain, relieving posture, an important parameter is also the variation of height of the CoG (how far does the individual bend down).

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, duration, L/R differences, uniformity of movement, CoG height variation.

TRT - Trunk Rise Test

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BT: Balance Test, Stabilometry

Type: Balance & coordination test, Posturography, Stabilmetry.

Motion: The subjects tries to stand as still as possible for a defined time period (e.g. 10 seconds). Various foot positions as well as open or closed eyes can be chosen to increase the difficulty.
The following standard types are supported:

  • Romberg stand, eyes open (RomEO)
  • Romberg stand, eyes closed (RomEC)
  • Semi-Tandem stand, eyes opent  (SemTanEO)
  • Semi-Tandem stand, eyes closed  (SemTanEC)
  • Tandem stand, eyes open (TanEO)
  • Tandem stand, eyes closed  (TanEC)
  • One leg stand, eyes open (1L_EO)
  • One leg stand, eyes closed  (1L_EC)
  • Limits of Stability (LoS)
  • Sit, hands free, eyes open (SitEO)
  • Sit, hands free, eyes closed (SitEC)
  • Sit, hands on, eyes open (SitHoEO)
  • Sit, hands on, eyes close (SitHoEC)
  • Free test (other)

Field of application: Well established in geriatrics and rehabilitation as well as in sports medicine as a basic coordination test.

Objectives/results: test of balance, proprioception and coordination. Ability for every day task in elderly, also fall risk assessment.

Outcome parameters: Stabilometry / Variation of CoF (CoP): Area of 90% standard ellipse (Sway Index), path length, average position, standard deviation in A/P and M/L direction over the complete measurement or separately over 6 sections of the measurement (trend, fatigue), frequency analysis of force and position signal, velocity histogram.

Note: The analysis of the variation of the CoF (CoP) can be calculated for every test procedure (e.g. also for the landing phase after a counter movement jump).

BT - Balance Test

RJ/CJ: Repetetive Jumps / Continous Jumps

Type: Endurance / fatiguing / exhaustion.

Motion:
RJ: Consecutive s2LJ with 2 seconds of pause inbetween repetitions
CJ: Consecutive s2LJ

Fields of application: Fitnes, Sport.

Objectives/results: Performane/power, endurance, fatiguing / exhaustion.

Outcome parameters: Variation of teh following paramters depending on the duration of the test/nuber of repertitions: Forcfe, accelleration, power, jumping height, contact time, flight time.

RJ - Repetetive Jumps - Measurement Trend View

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TpTs/TpTc: Tapping Test (im Stehen / Sitzend)

Type: Coordination, quickness.

Motion: changing of weight from one foot to the other as fast as possible
TpTs: Tapping Test standing
TpTc: Tapping Test sitting

Field of application: Fitnes, Sport.

Objectives/results: Quickness, speed.

Outcome parameters: Frequency, contact time, force, reproducability, side-differences.

TpTs/TpTc: Tapping Test (standing/sitting)

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BJT: Box Jump Test: Jump for maximum height (counter movement jump) on top of Box

Type: Performance (power test).

Motion: Natural jump (counter movement jump) for maximum height similar to s2LJ but landing ontop of a box.
High reproducibility due to every day movement type.
Only fro verry specific applications (e.g. top athletes) additional normalisation of this movement (like locking of the arms by putting the hands on the hip) are needed.

Field of application: Basic performance (power) test.

Objectives/results: Quantification of individual anaerobe peak power output, reference data (age 3 to 99, matched for mass, gender, age), efficiency of movement (inter and intra muscular whole body coordination), L/R differences (is it an asymmetric movement, e.g. due to pain, relieving posture, injury of locomotor system including back muscles).

Outcome parameters: Force, acceleration, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, jumping height, counter movement, mass, L/R differences (force, power), Esslinger Fitness Index (E.F.I.), efficiency of movement.

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ST: Squat Test

Type: Performance/power, endurance

Motion: one or more consecutive squats

Field of application: Fitnes, Sport, General.

Objectives/results: Performacne, endurance, fatiguing.

Outcome parameters: Power, force, accelleration, velocity, height differences, trend function to visualize changes of analysis parameters inbetween repetitions.

ST - Squat Test - Measurement Trend View

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LST: Loaded Squat Test: suqats uisng additional weights

Type: performance/power, fatiguing

Motion: Series of ST (one or more consequitive squats) using different additional weights.
Field of application: Sport, Fitnes.

Objectives/results: Performacne, endurance, fatiguing, load-velocity/power relation.

Outcome parameters: Power, force, accelleration, velocity, height differences, trend function to visualize changes of analysis parameters dependibng on extra load.

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IF: Isometric Force Test: Peak force in static positions

Type: Isometric force against fixed resistance (e.g. belt or fixation)

Position: Pulling or pushing against a fixed resistance.
Field of application: Sport, Fitnes.

Objectives/results: Peak force for specific muscle groups, positions or joint angles.

Outcome parameters: Peak force, relative peak force in relation to body mass.

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SC: Stair Climb (up/down)

Type: Performance/power

Motion: Climbing a stair
(4 or 5 steps depending on used Leonardo Mechanograph Stair)

Field of application: General.

Objectives/results: Performacne (power).

Outcome parameters: Power, force, accelleration, velocity, height difference, duration per step.

SC - Stair Climb (up)

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GrF: Grip Force

Type: Grip Force.
(Only in combination with Grip Force option)

Motion: mximum grip force

Field of application: Geriatrics, Sarcopenia, Dynapenia.

Objectives/results: Maximum Grip Force.

Outcome parameters: maximum grip force in N and kg.

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GW: Gangway (Gait Analysis)

Type: Gait Analysis.

Motion: free walking over a distance of 6m to 12m.
(Only in combination Leonardo Mechanograph GW, length: 6m, 9m or 12m)

Field of application: Gait Analysis.

Objectives/results: Gait Analysis, variation of CoF/CoP.

Outcome parameters: velocity, force, duration/length pwer step, path length, symmetry, side-differences.

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GrW: Grip Work (Endurance)

Type: Grip Work.
(Only in combination with Grip Force option)

Motion: mximum grip force, hold as long as possibel, measurement ends when force drops to 50% of maximum value.

Field of application: Geriatrics, Sarcopenia, Dynapenia.

Objectives/results: Maximum Grip Force, hold as long as possible.

Outcome parameters: maximum grip force in N and kg, Tiem to Exhaustion.

GW - Gangway - Gait Analysis